Large elastic deformations modify the electronic structure of materials, leading to changes of their physical and chemical properties. The concept of elastic strain engineering has been successfully applied to enhance the electron and hole mobility in complementary metal-oxide semiconductors, to transform paramagnetic into ferromagnetic ones, or to increase the catalytic activity of metals. The colloquium on “Modulation of physico-chemical processes by elastic strain engineering” is planned as an interdisciplinary discussion forum among scientists with different backgrounds and expertise to analyze the current status and the perspective of elastic strain engineering.